What Is Protein?
Benefits of Protein
Daily Protein Intake
Protein requirements by age
Aging and protein
Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and protein
Athletes and protein
Side Effects of Too Much Protein
Healthy Protein Sources
What Is Protein?
Proteins are one of the basic building blocks of life that allow organisms to grow and function properly. They are complex molecules composed of long chains of smaller molecules called amino acids, which are linked together like beads on a string. The sequence and number of amino acids determine each protein’s unique 3D structure and function.
There are 20 common amino acids used to build proteins, and they are coded for by DNA within cells. The body relies on getting enough of these essential amino acids from food sources like meat, eggs, beans, nuts and dairy so it can produce the wide array of proteins needed on a daily basis.
Proteins perform an incredibly diverse set of roles that are critical for cells and the organism as a whole. As structural components, they help form skin, hair, bone, muscle and cartilage. As enzymes, they catalyze or accelerate chemical reactions necessary for metabolism, digestion, energy production and more. Special carrier proteins transport oxygen through blood as hemoglobin. Antibodies that fight disease pathogens are also proteins. Some proteins regulate hormones and signaling between cells while others are involved in mechanical functions like muscle contraction.
The proteins in food fulfill various functions as well. They can serve as fuel for energy, though carbohydrates and fats make up most of one’s caloric needs. Certain proteins act as enzymes to break down starch, fat, and protein in food into smaller units during digestion. Nutrient proteins supply essential amino acids needed for the body’s protein production. Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids (like in meat, eggs, dairy) while incomplete proteins (grains, nuts, vegetables) lack one or more essential amino acid. Combining certain incomplete proteins can provide all the essentials for the human diet.
Getting enough dietary protein is important, especially for building and repairing muscle mass. Health authorities recommend consuming 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day for adults. Excess protein beyond what the body can use may simply convert to and store as fat. Older adults trying to preserve muscle mass may benefit from even higher protein intake. High protein foods, protein shakes, and judicious use of supplements provide options for making sure one meets daily protein targets.
Benefits of Protein (write in 800 words)
Protein is an essential macronutrient that serves a wide variety of critical functions in the human body. Getting adequate amounts of protein in your diet each day provides many health benefits:
Building and Repairing Muscle
Protein plays a crucial role in building and preserving muscle mass. The amino acids obtained from protein are used to fuel muscle growth and rebuild damaged muscle fibers after exercise. Consuming protein both before and after workouts helps kickstart muscle protein production and recovery. Maintaining muscle is also vital for supporting strength, mobility and metabolism as you age.
Dietary protein supports bone tissue health in several ways. Protein helps your body absorb and retain calcium, contributing the necessary ingredients to produce bone matrix. This may lead to higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of osteoporosis over time. The protein and amino acids in collagen are also a fundamental building block of bones.
Eating more protein can influence weight management in a few ways. Protein is the most satiating macronutrient, keeping you feeling fuller for longer after eating compared to fat or carbohydrates. This satisfaction from protein-rich meals may naturally reduce calorie intake and control overeating tendencies. Protein can also increase your metabolism slightly and help preserve precious lean muscle mass when trying to lose weight.
Despite outdated beliefs that extra protein taxes the kidneys and liver, newer research indicates dietary protein offers heart health perks. Protein has been found to lower blood pressure, reduce triglycerides and LDL “bad” cholesterol while raising “good” HDL cholesterol. This may lower risks for heart disease.
Many proteins play important roles within cells of the immune system. Cells need a steady supply of amino acids from dietary protein sources to produce these immunity proteins. Lack of sufficient protein can lead to decreased immune response and higher susceptibility to illness or infection.
The amino acids provided by dietary proteins offer the basic ingredients for repairing damaged tissues and healing after an injury. Getting more protein can help speed up recovery times after surgery, severe burns or normal athletic muscle damage. The protein needs jump substantially during injury recovery.
Neurotransmitters that regulate alertness and nerve signaling rely on amino acids to form and function properly. Dietary protein provides the materials to produce these key brain chemicals. Protein deficiency has been linked with brain fog, trouble concentrating, and psychiatric problems in some cases.
Blood Sugar Control
Higher protein diets may improve blood sugar management. Protein does not raise blood sugar like carbohydrate-heavy foods, so pairing protein with any meal can effectively lower its glycemic index. Protein may also directly contribute to insulin production and sensitivity inside cells. Both effects help mitigate diabetes risk.
In essence, protein provides critical building blocks of life that drive sound body composition, healthy organ function, disease resilience, and recovery capacity. Adult women should aim for at least 46 grams of protein per day, and adult men at least 56 grams per day through food and supplements like protein shakes or bars.
Protein deficiency describes a condition where someone does not get adequate amounts of protein from their diet on a prolonged basis. Since protein is essential for building structural body components and a range of functional proteins, not getting enough can cause health problems.
Those at highest risk for protein deficiency are vegetarians and vegans who do not properly balance plant-based protein sources, along with developing countries suffering widespread malnutrition. Symptoms of protein deficiency can include edema or fluid retention, fatigue, muscle wasting, slow growth and low body weight in children, hair loss, skin problems, diarrhea and increased susceptibility to infection. In severe cases where almost all protein intake is restricted for a long period, kwashiorkor can occur. This is characterized by a distended belly, lethargy, irritability and failure to grow properly.
To prevent protein deficiency, most adults need to eat at least 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight daily – so around 56 grams per day for men and 46 grams per day for women on average. Pregnant or breastfeeding women need more total protein as well. Consuming high protein foods likes meats, fish, eggs, dairy, legumes, nuts and even protein shakes ensures you meet your daily protein requirements. Getting adequate total calorie intake also helps maintain protein balance. Those following restricted diets for any health reason should take care to still obtain all essential proteins.
Overview of Recommended Daily Protein Intake:
How much protein you need each day depends on your weight, age, activity level and health status. The current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram of your total body weight. This equates to about 56 grams per day for the average sedentary adult man and 46 grams per day for the average woman. However, research indicates the optimal amount for health, performance, and body composition goals may be higher at 1-1.6g per kg of body weight.
Older adults should aim for higher protein intake closer to 1g per kg to help maintain more lean muscle mass and strength as they age. Athletes in training, those doing regular intense workouts, and people trying to lose weight may likewise benefit from 1-1.5g per kg daily. Higher protein causes minimal issues in healthy people but should be avoided in anyone with a history of kidney disease or kidney stones without medical guidance.
The best sources of protein come from lean meats, eggs, fish and seafood, milk products including Greek yogurt, beans and legumes, nuts, seeds and even whole grains. It’s ideal to spread your protein intake evenly throughout the day across meals and snacks instead of just eating a large portion at dinner, for example. Supplements like protein shakes and bars can also contribute to your daily needs conveniently and efficiently. Tracking protein intake using a food journaling app can help ensure you meet recommended targets tailored to your changing health status and goals. Consuming adequate high-quality protein provides fuel for preserving muscle, supporting metabolism, controlling appetite and powering immune function.
Protein Requirements by Age
Protein Requirements Broken Down by Age Group:
Infants & Toddlers
– Infants have the highest protein needs relative to body size to facilitate rapid growth and development.
– 0-6 months: 9.1-10.5 grams per day
– 6-12 months: 11 grams per day as complementary foods are introduced
– 1-3 years: 13 grams per day (approx. 1.1 grams per kg bodyweight)
Children & Teens
– School aged children still need adequate dietary protein to sustain growth, bone health, and activity levels.
– 4-8 years: 19 grams per day
– 9-13 years: 34 grams per day
– 14+ years/teens: Up to 52 grams per day for boys and 46 grams for girls to build muscle and fuel pubertal growth
– Protein needs are based on weight rather than age once fully grown. The current RDA is set at 0.8 grams of protein per kg of body weight, but emerging research suggests the optimal amount may be closer to twice that at 1.6 grams per kg especially for active individuals trying to preserve or build more muscle.
– Women typically need around 46 grams per day (0.8 g/kg)
– Men typically need around 56 grams per day (0.8g/kg)
– Active adults should aim for 1.2-2.0g/kg based on activity level and body composition goals
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
– Pregnant women need more high quality protein for fetal tissue generation and expansion of maternal blood supply: 71 grams per day
– Breastfeeding women require more protein to meet baby’s needs: 71 grams per day
Seniors Over 65
– Aging adults should aim for the higher end of protein recommendations to help preserve muscle mass and strength: 1.0-1.2g/kg per day
– Spread protein intake evenly throughout the day for optimal muscle protein synthesis
– Consuming 25-30g of high quality protein per meal provides the building blocks to maintain mobility
The best approach is to calculate your specific protein target based on your current weight and activity level while also consulting a doctor or dietitian about optimal protein timing and food sources. Consuming the right amount of quality, lean proteins throughout life aids growth, performance, strength and disease resilience no matter your age.
Aging and Protein
How Protein Needs Change with Aging:
As we advance in age, maintaining adequate protein intake becomes even more important for preserving health and functionality. However, the aging process can make it more challenging for the body to properly utilize dietary protein.
Changes in hormone levels, slower digestion, reduced appetite, impaired absorption, and decreased physical activity can all negatively impact protein metabolism in seniors. Ill-fitting dentures and use of multiple medications may also make it hard to consume enough high quality protein foods.
While the RDA for protein remains at 0.8 grams per kilogram of weight throughout adulthood, emerging research shows seniors likely need at least 1.0 to 1.2g per kg of protein daily to counteract age-related sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and strength. Consuming 25-30 grams of protein across three daily meals provides the necessary amino acids to stimulate muscle growth.
Seniors should focus on eating complete, easily digestible animal-based proteins like eggs, yogurt, fish, chicken, and lean red meat. Supplements like protein shakes may also help those struggling with inadequate intakes from whole foods alone. Getting physical activity and exercise can further make the body more efficient at utilizing and retaining dietary protein.
With some planning, attention and effort, seniors can meet their elevated protein needs in order to stay active, energetic and independent as long as possible.
Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Protein
Protein Needs During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding:
Pregnancy and breastfeeding increase protein requirements to support fetal development and milk production. The current recommended intake for protein during pregnancy and lactation is 1.1 grams per kilogram of the mother’s pre-pregnancy body weight per day.
For example, if a woman weighed 150 lbs (68kg) before conceiving, her recommended minimum protein intake would be about 75g daily during pregnancy or breastfeeding. This elevated protein recommendation exists throughout pregnancy for optimal tissue expansion and baby growth.
High quality protein sources like Greek yogurt, eggs, lean meats, fish, legumes and protein shakes help meet these increased maternal needs in a balanced diet. Some protein is also devoted to expanding blood supply and uterine/placental tissues.
After birth, nursing mothers continue requiring extra dietary protein – about 71g per day – to meet babies’ nutritional needs. Breast milk content is not affected substantially if protein intake dips temporarily day-to-day, indicating mothers have a robust physiological system for partitioning adequate protein to their milk supply after an overnight fast.
Yet chronically low protein intake can negatively impact milk quality and volume over time. Some research also shows higher postpartum protein intake enhances weight loss by promoting the retention of calorie-burning lean muscle mass while losing accumulated fat stores after pregnancy.
In summary, women need about 25 extra grams of high quality protein daily – above the 46g baseline – during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. This recommendation can be achieved through a balanced diet high in complete protein sources. Supplements may provide an efficient protein boost as well for some busy mothers.
Athletes and Protein
Protein Recommendations for Athletes:
Athletes and those engaged in intense regular workouts have elevated dietary protein needs to optimize performance and recovery. While the standard protein requirement is 0.8g per kilogram of body weight per day, athletes should aim to consume 1.2-2.0g/kg based on their specific goals, sport intensity level, training volume and body composition targets.
Consuming enough high quality, easily digestible proteins facilitates faster muscle repair, strength building, and reduced muscle breakdown during intense physical activity. Protein also provides necessary amino acids to optimize oxygen transport in blood for endurance sports.
Pre-workout protein feeds muscles the building blocks ready for a stimulus to grow bigger and stronger. Post-workout protein accelerates the repair and growth of taxed muscles. Spreading 40-60g doses of supplemental protein before and after workouts maximizes these muscle protein synthesis effects for several hours.
Athletes striving to alter their body composition may increase or reduce total protein intake along with calories to spur muscle hypertrophy or fat loss accordingly. But a baseline elevated protein recommendation of up to 1.8g per kg/day sustains power, endurance and overall health.
While athletes can obtain their elevated protein from whole food sources like fish, poultry, eggs, dairy and legumes, shakes and powders offer a convenient, easy-to-dose means to achieve targets, especially surrounding key workouts. Testing different protein doses and timing strategies enables athletes to refine an optimal personalized protein regimen over time.
Side Effects of Too Much Protein
Potential Side Effects of Consuming too Much Protein:
– While protein is important for building and maintaining muscle, exceeding your body’s use for protein does not further boost muscle growth or fat loss.
– Excess calories from protein can lead to fat gain just like excess calories from carbs or fat. Each gram of protein contains 4 calories.
– Eating very high protein intakes for too long without adjusting other calorie sources could contribute to weight gain rather than loss over time.
Dehydration & Constipation
– Digesting and metabolizing large amounts of protein requires more water. Inadequate hydration contributes to side effects like headaches, lethargy, impaired performance and even organ damage.
– Lean proteins and incomplete plant proteins especially may lack enough fat or fiber leading to constipation issues if over-consumed consistently. Stay hydrated and vary protein sources.
– Healthy kidneys can process high protein intakes without harm, but those with chronic kidney disease are advised to limit protein. High protein causes more metabolic waste products that kidneys must filter out.
– Dehydration from extreme high protein diets also overworks the kidneys. Genetic predisposition toward kidney issues may dictate lower protein requirements for some as well.
– The liver produces enzymes to break down proteins and amino acids. Very high intakes may tax liver function over time, especially in those with preexisting liver conditions. Monitor liver health markers if attempting very high protein diets.
– Consuming most protein from real foods will provide liver support nutrients versus synthetic supplements. Spread intake over the day for steady processing.
Acidosis and Bone Loss
– Protein metabolism produces acidic byproducts that the body buffers with calcium and phosphate releasing alkaline compounds from bone. This could negatively impact bone density over years if unchecked.
– Getting adequate fruits and vegetables daily helps neutralize excess acidity from protein breakdown. Weight-bearing exercise and vitamin D/calcium/magnesium intake further supports bone health.
– Some people experience bloating, gas, cramps or diarrhea from ramping protein intake up too quickly, especially with shakes and supplements. Use a gradual transition to assess tolerance levels.
– Complete animal proteins tend to be more easily digestible than predominant plant proteins for those sensitive to high fiber grains, legumes, nuts and seeds.
– Spikes and crashes in energy/blood sugar from imbalanced protein-heavy diets could manifest as mood swings, anxiety, headaches or trouble focusing cognitively. Stabilize intake with slower-digesting carbs.
– Tyrosine and tryptophan depletion may also decrease key hormones and neurotransmitters tied to mood like dopamine, serotonin and thyroid if protein overwhelms total calorie intake.
In general, healthy adults can safely consume more than current protein recommendations suggest with appropriate adjustments to total calories, fiber and hydration intake. But refined supplements, overly unbalanced diets and preexisting medical conditions could prompt side effects in some cases. Assess your response by gradually ramping protein intake while monitoring kidney health and bone density markers over time.
Healthy Protein Sources
Overview of healthy protein food sources:
Lean Meat and Poultry
– Beef, lamb, pork, chicken, and turkey supply 20-30g protein per 3 ounce cooked serving. Choose leaner cuts and moderate portions. Provide iron, zinc, and B-vitamins.
Fish and Seafood
– Fatty fish like salmon and tuna offer omega-3 fatty acids along with about 22g protein per 4-6 ounces. Shellfish like shrimp, oysters, and clams also pack up to 20g.
Eggs and Dairy
– Eggs deliver 6-8g of highly bioavailable protein each. Greek yogurt supplies around 20g protein per 6 ounce serving. Milk, cheese, cottage cheese and kefir provide protein along with calcium.
Beans, Legumes and Lentils
– Options like chickpeas, kidney beans, black beans, and lentils supply 12-16g plant-based protein per cooked cup serving. Also offer gut-healthy fiber, minerals and antioxidants.
– Tofu, edamame, tempeh and soy milk derived from whole soybeans offer all essential amino acids. Favor fermented sources. Provide 9-20g per serving. May influence hormones at very high intakes.
Nuts and Nut Butters
– Almonds and natural peanut or almond butter deliver 6-8g per ounce serving providing monounsaturated fats and fiber. Other nuts, seeds and their butters like hazelnuts also contribute protein.
Whole and Sprouted Grains
– Quinoa, amaranth, buckwheat, millet, wild rice, oats, and sprouted grain breads supply 3-8g per cooked cup or serving. Choose properly prepared grains to enhance digestibility and nutrition.
– Made from dairy, egg, soy, rice or pea protein isolates and concentrated for easy dosing post workouts or between meals. Contribute around 20-30g protein per ounce. High quality and third party tested is best.
Fresh Green Vegetables
– While not predominant sources, gradually increasing protein intake from veggies like spinach, Brussels, broccoli, peas, asparagus and artichokes enhances variety in a balanced diet. Support detox pathways.
The most healthful approach emphasizes getting a majority of your daily protein from whole food sources like fatty fish, eggs, Greek yogurt, fleshy meats if you eat them and legumes. Then smaller supplemental amounts can be obtained conveniently from protein bars, smoothies and shakes using high quality isolates. Work with a dietitian to plan protein variety tailored to your needs, preferences and health conditions. Stay adequately hydrated as well when increasing intake.
- How much protein do I need per day?
The recommended daily intake is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. To calculate your needs more specifically, multiply your weight in pounds by 0.36. Active individuals or athletes may need up to twice as much protein.
- What happens if I eat too much protein?
Consuming more protein than your body can use may simply get converted and stored as fat or burned for energy. Very high intakes over long periods may tax kidney function, create acid-base imbalance or mineral deficiency issues in sensitive persons lacking adequate hydration, carbohydrate, nutrient intake.
- What are complete vs incomplete protein sources?
Complete proteins like meat, eggs, fish and dairy contain all the essential amino acids your body needs. Plant-based incomplete proteins like grains, nuts, vegetables lack or are low in one or more essential amino acid. Combining them in the same meal completes the amino acid profile.
- When is the best time to consume protein?
Research shows spreading 30-40 grams of protein evenly throughout the day optimizes muscle building and recovery rather than one large dose. Consuming a dose first thing in morning and after workouts may be ideal for active persons. Before bed helps maintain overnight muscle tissue repair.
- How much protein do I need if trying to lose weight?
While lowering overall calories aids fat loss, getting around 0.7 to 1 gram protein per pound of target body weight preserves metabolic rate and retains more muscle so you lose mostly fat. Higher protein also controls appetite hormones better during weight loss diets.
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